CONTENT REVIEWERS

Our Symptom Checker care guides are derived from the professional protocols used by nurses in medical call centers and physician practices. The content is rigorously reviewed by panels of healthcare professionals, comprised of:

  • Call center medical directors
  • Primary care physicians
  • Emergency physicians
  • Physician specialists
  • Triage nurses
  • Specialty nurses

Each year, once the review process is completed for the professional protocol versions, the Symptom Checker content is edited to ensure its compatibility and consistency with any updates made. The care guides are updated based upon recent medical literature, recent national guidelines, quality improvement projects, research, expert reviews and feedback from clients and users.

+ - Pediatric Reviewers

The Author is grateful to the following individuals, for their time and expertise in reviewing some of the pediatric clinical content that has been incorporated into these guidelines.

Medical Directors of Call Centers

  • Peter Dehnel, MD, Children’s Physician Network, Minneapolis, MN
  • Lee‐Anne Facey‐Crowther, MD, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Andrew Hertz, MD, Rainbow Babies Children’s Hospital, Cleveland, OH
  • Susan MacLean, MD, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Gary Marks, DO, CHWS, Asante Nurse Call Center, Oregon
  • Peter O’Hanley, MD, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada
  • Randy Sterkel, MD, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, St. Louis, MO
  • Debra Weiner, MD, Citra Health Solutions, Portland, ME (former)
  • Elaine Donoghue, MD, St. Peter’s Medical Center Call Center; New Brunswick, NJ (former)
  • Hanna Sherman, MD, Boston Children’s Hospital Call Center; Boston, MA (former)

Emergency Medicine Specialists

  • Lalit Bajaj, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • Joan Bothner, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • Alison Brent, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • J. Michael Connors, MD, Anytime Pediatrics, Knoxville, TN
  • Michael DiStefano, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • Joseph Grubenhoff, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
  • David Thompson, MD, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL; Author of Adult Clinical Content for Telephone Triage and Advice

Community Pediatrician Advisory Board: Children’s Hospital Colorado

  • Vincent DiMaria, MD, Arapahoe Park Pediatrics, Littleton, CO
  • Matt Dorighi, MD, Cherry Creek Pediatrics, Denver, CO
  • John Guenther MD, Fort Collins Youth Clinic, Fort Collins, CO
  • Daniel Feiten, MD, Greenwood Pediatrics, Centennial, CO
  • Nancy Greer, MD, Broomfield Pediatrics, Broomfield, CO
  • Michael Kurtz, MD, Advanced Pediatric Associates, Aurora, CO
  • Jay Markson, MD, Children’s Medical Center, Denver, CO
  • Robert Mauro, MD, Greenwood Pediatrics, Littleton, CO
  • Martha Middlemist, MD, Pediatrics at 5280, Englewood, CO
  • Stefan Mokrohisky, MD, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, CO
  • Michelle Stanford, MD, Centennial Pediatrics, Centennial, CO

Community Pediatrician Advisory Board: St. Louis Children’s Hospital

  • Jay Epstein, MD, Community Pediatrician, Forest Park Pediatrics
  • Katherine Kreusser, MD, Community Pediatrician, Children’s Clinic
  • Steve Lillpop, MD, Community Pediatrician, Jacksonville Pediatrics
  • Jerome O’Neil, MD, Community Pediatrician, Southwest Pediatrics
  • Rachel Orscheln, MD, Infectious Disease, Washington University SOM
  • Casey Pruitt, MD, Pediatric Hospitalist, St. Louis Children’s Hospital
  • Isabel Rosenbloom, MD, Community Pediatrician, Tots Thru Teens Pediatrics
  • Randy Sterkel, MD, Answer Line Medical Director, Community Pediatrician,
  • Esse Health Pediatrics

Telephone Triage Nurses: Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO

  • Teresa Baird, RN
  • Teresa Hegarty, RN
  • Kris Light, RN
  • Liz Lindvall, RN
  • Jaime Klein, RN
  • Kathleen Martinez, RN
  • Kelli Massaro, RN
  • Deanna Miller, RN
  • Ann Petersen‐Smith, RN, PNP
  • Nicole Thede, RN

Telephone Triage Nurses: Other Sites

  • Audra Bailey, RN, Aurora, CO
  • Amy Barrett, RN, Portland, OR
  • Charlene Brophy, RN, Newfoundland, Canada
  • Sharon Cartaya, RN, Fort Lauderdale, FL
  • Katrina Davis, RN, PNP, Salem, OR
  • Suzie Draper, RN, Denver, CO
  • Jeanine Feirer, RN, Unity, WI
  • Lynne Linden, RN, Minneapolis, MN
  • Melissa Masson, RN, London, Ontario, Canada
  • Heather Macleod, RN, Minneapolis, MN
  • Cheryl Patterson, RN, Evergreen, WA
  • Teresa Pounds, RN, Maryville, TN
  • Lisa Swerczek, RN, St. Louis, MO
  • Suzanne Wells, RN, St. Louis, MO

Pediatric Subspecialists: Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO (unless otherwise noted)

  • Adolescent Medicine: David Kaplan, MD, Trina Anglin, MD, Eric Sigel, MD, Karolyn Kabir, MD, Amy Sass, MD
  • Allergy: James Shira, MD, Dan Atkins MD
  • Behavior: Ayelet Talmi, PhD, Jeff Dolgan, MD, James Tulloch, MD, Kimberly Kelsay, MD
  • Breastfeeding: Maya Bunik, MD, Lisbeth Gabrielski, RN, Marianne Neifert, MD
  • Cardiology: Michael Schaffer, MD, James Wiggins, MD, Robert Wolfe, MD, Henry Sondheimer, MD
  • Child Abuse: Andrew Sirotnak, MD, Antonia Chiesa, MD
  • Dentistry: William Mueller, DDS; Elizabeth A. Shick, DDS
  • Dermatology: Anna Bruckner, MD, William Weston, MD, James Fitzpatrick MD, dermatologist and curator of Dermatology Images
  • Diabetes: Georgeanna Klingensmith, MD; Jennifer Kyllo, MD, McNeely Diabetes Center, Children’s Hospital of Minnesota
  • Ear Nose and Throat (ENT): Kenneth Chan, MD
  • Endocrinology: Michael Kappy, MD
  • Gastroenterology (GI): David Brumbaugh, MD, Sara Fidanza, RN, PNP, Glenn Furuta, MD, Michael Narkewicz, MD, Jason Soden, MD, Judy Sondheimer, MD, Ronald Sokol, MD
  • General Pediatrics: Steven Poole, MD, Stephen Berman, MD, Robert Brayden, MD, Brandi Freeman, MD, Allison Kempe, MD, Maya Bunik, MD
  • Hematology: Taru Hays, MD
  • Hospitalists: David G. Zipes, MD and the Pediatric Hospitalists of Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital at St.Vincent, Indianapolis, IN
  • Infectious Diseases: James K. Todd, MD, Mary Glode, MD, Mark Abzug, MD, Brian Lauer, MD, Elizabeth McFarland, MD, Ann‐Christine Nyquist, MD, Harley Rotbart, MD, John Ogle, MD
  • Neonatology: Susan Niermeyer, MD, Elizabeth Thilo, MD, Adam Rosenberg, MD
  • Nephrology: Douglas Ford, MD
  • Nutrition: Nancy Krebs, MD
  • Neurology: Paul Moe, MD, Paul Levisohn, MD, Julie Parsons, MD, Alan Seay, MD
  • Ophthalmology: Robert Enzenauer, MD, Robert King, MD
  • Orthopedics: Robert Eilert, MD, Frank Chang, MD
  • Pulmonary Medicine: Monica Federico, MD, Gwendolyn Kerby, MD, Scott Sagel, MD
  • Rheumatology: Roger Hollister, MD
  • Sports Medicine: Brooke Pengel, MD
  • Toxicology: Richard Dart, MD, Medical Director, Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center; William D. King, RPh, MPH, DrPH, University of Alabama School of Medicine; Erica Liebolt, MD, FACMT, University of Alabama School of Medicine
  • Urology: Martin Koyle, MD

American Academy of Pediatrics Appointed Reviewers

  • Mark Corkings, MD, FAAP, Member, AAP Committee on Nutrition
  • Leo Heitlinger, MD, FAAP, Chair, AAP Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
  • Jack Swanson, MD, FAAP, Chair, AAP Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine
  • Allan Lieberthal, MD, FAAP, Member, AAP Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine
  • Nancy Krebs, MD, MS, FAAP, Member, AAP Committee on Nutrition
  • Jennifer Shu, MD, Medical Editor, AAP HealthyChildren website, Atlanta, GA

Community Pediatricians

  • Justin Alvey, MD, Layton, UT
  • John Benbow, MD, Concord, NC
  • Barbara Brundage, MD, Derry, NH
  • Catherine Casey, MD, Arlington, VA
  • Thomas Foels, MD, Williamsville, NY
  • Fred Hamburg, MD, Springfield, MO (deceased)
  • George Miller, MD, Salem, OR (deceased)
  • Cajsa Schumacher, MD, Albany, NY
  • Kiki Traylor, MD, Denver, CO
  • Paul Tschetter, MD, Pediatrics at DTC, Denver, CO
  • Joseph Vander‐Walde, MD, Kaiser Permanente Mid‐Atlantic
  • Sarah Van Scoy, MD et al, Littleton Pediatrics, Denver, CO
  • Wallace White, MD, Denver, CO (deceased)

+ - Adult Reviewers

The Author is grateful to the following individuals, for their time and expertise in reviewing the triage content that has been incorporated into these care guides.

Call Center Medical Directors

  • Lee‐Anne Facey‐Crowther, MD, Medical Advisor, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Gary Marks, DO, CHWS, Medical Director Telemedicine & Telephone Nurse Triage, Asante, Medford, OR
  • Susan MacLean, MD, Medical Advisor, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Barton Schmitt, MD, Professor of Pediatrics; Medical Director, After‐Hours Call Center, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO
  • Mark Rotty, MD, Medical Director, Medical Call Center, Children’s Physician Network, Minneapolis, MN
  • Gary Setnik, MD, Chair, Emergency Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA; Co‐director, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Citra Health Solutions, Portland, ME
  • Michael Wahl, MD, Medical Director, The Illinois Poison Center, Chicago, IL
  • Michael Weaver, MD, Medical Director, FoneMed; Medical Director, Clinical Forensic Care Program; VP Clinical Diversity, St. Luke’s Hospital, Kansas City,MO

Physicians

  • Charles Bareis, MD, General Internist, Chief Medical Officer, MacNeal Hospital and Health Network, Berwyn, IL
  • Gregor Blix, MD, Urologic Surgeon, Medical Director Healthcare Midwest Surgery Center, Bronson Methodist Hospital and Borgess Hospital, Kalamazoo, MI
  • Carolyn B. Bridges, MD, CDR, USPHS. Associate Director for Science (acting), Influenza Division, NCIRD (proposed) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • John Brofman, MD, Pulmonologist, Medical Director of Critical Care, MacNeal Hospital and Health Network, Berwyn IL
  • Dwayne Coad, MD, Emergency Physician and Hospice Physician, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
  • Andrew Davis, MD, MPH, General Internist, Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL
  • Robin Devan, MD, Palliative Care Program, Adult Sickle Cell Clinical Program, Assistant Professor, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR
  • Kellie Flood‐Shaffer, MD, Assistant Professor, Division Director, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH
  • David Goldberg, MD, Director of Student Health, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL
  • Mitchell Goldman, MD, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital at St Vincent, Indianapolis, IN
  • Michael Gottlieb, MD, Emergency Medicine, Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital at St. Vincent, Indianapolis, IN
  • Jason Gutting, MD, Pediatrician, Pediatric Emergency Physician, Pediatric Telemedicine Specialist, Medical Director of Informatics, SSM St. Joseph Hospital, Lake St. Louis, MO
  • Joseph Grubenhoff, MD, Assistant Professor, Section of Emergency Medicine, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO
  • Kenneth Heinrich, MD, Emergency Physician; Regional Director, Emergency Consultants, Inc., Traverse City, MI
  • Inbar Kirson, MD, Attending, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, IL
  • Tony Lang, MD, Internist, Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, IL
  • Matthew Levine MD, Director of Trauma Services, Department of Emergency Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago IL
  • Katherine Nolan‐Watson MD, Assistant Professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL
  • Roger Kaldawy, MD, Asst. Professor in Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA
  • Samantha Mckelvey, MD, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; ANGELS program (Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System), Little Rock, AR
  • Edward Otten, MD, Toxicologist, Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH
  • Greg Ozark, MD, Director, Med‐Peds Residency, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL
  • Paula Podrazik, MD, Geriatrician, General Internist and ED Physician, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL
  • Anna B. Reisman, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
  • Theodora Rusinak, MD, Emergency Physician, Illinois Masonic Hospital, Chicago, IL
  • Daniel Stone, MD MBA, Attending Physician and Clinical Instructor, Northwestern University Emergency Medicine Residency, Chicago, IL
  • Herb Sutherland, DO, Medical Director of Emergency Department and Medical Call Center, Northwestern Medicine Central Dupage Hospital, Winfield, IL
  • Penny Tenzer, MD, Vice‐Chair, Director of Family Medicine Residency, University of Miami Hospital and Medical School, Miami, FL
  • Diana Viravec, MD, Emergency Physician, Emergency Services, MacNeal Hospital and Health Network, Berwyn, IL
  • Gary Wainer, DO, Family Practice Attending, Chief Medical Officer, Chicago Health Systems, Chicago, IL
  • James Waymack, MD, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine at Southern Illinois University, Springfield, IL
  • Victoria Weston, MD, Emergency Physician, Northwestern Lake Forest Hospital; Past President AAEM Resident and Student Association
  • James Wilkerson, MD, Attending Pathologist, Merced Pathology Laboratory, Merced, CA
  • David Zipes, MD, Pediatric Hospitalist, Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital at St Vincent, Indianapolis, IN

Nurses

  • Mary Alexander, CRNI, Chief Executive Officer, Infusion Nurses Society (INS); Editor, Journal of Infusion Nursing, Norwood, MA
  • Tina Butler, WHNP‐BC MNSc, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences ANGELS program (Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System), Little Rock, AR
  • Joanne Dedowicz, RN, Director of Resource and Referral, Behavioral Health, Edwards ‐ Linden Hospital, Naperville, IL
  • Jenny DuFresne, RN, Manager for Valley Connection Call Center, Santa Clara Valley Hospital, Santa Clara, CA
  • Jeanine Feirer, RN, Clinical Coordinator, Proactive Health, Marshfield Clinic, Unity, WI
  • Lisbeth Gabrielski, RN MSN IBCLC, Clinical Manager, Lactation Services, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO
  • Rebecca Gebhart, RN MSN, Faculty, University of Phoenix, AZ
  • Marlene Grasser, RN, LVM Systems, Mesa, AZ
  • Deborah Gresham, RNC MSN, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Center for Women’s Health Care, Miami Valley Hospital, Dayton, OH
  • Valerie Grossman, RN BSN CEN, Director of Medical‐Surgical Services, Via Health Hospital, Rochester, NY
  • Teresa Hegarty, RN, Nurse Manager, Call Center Nurse, After‐Hours Call Center, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO
  • Laura Mahlmeister, RN PhD, Educational and Nurse Legal Consultant, L&D Nurse, Mahlmeister and Associates, San Francisco, CA
  • Kelli Massaro, RN, Telephone Triage Consultant, Call Center Nurse, After‐Hours Call Center, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO
  • Melissa Masson, RN BScN MN(c), Clinical Practice Consultant, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Ontario, Canada
  • Donna Matthews, RN, Newfoundland, Canada
  • Becky McGowan, RN, Call Center Nurse and Emergency Department Nurse, MacNeal Hospital and Health Network, Berwyn, IL
  • Kim McCormick, RN, Telephone Triage, Home Health and Hospice Nursing, MacNeal Home Health Care, Berwyn, IL
  • Cheryl Patterson, RNC BSN, Educator Coordinator, Evergreen Healthline, Evergreen Hospital Medical Center, Kirkland, WA
  • Laurie Peachey, RN, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Teresa Pounds, BSN RN, Clinical Quality Coordinator, Citra Health Solutions, Portland, ME
  • Joan Rucker, RN, Perinatal and Maternal Educator, MacNeal Hospital and Health Network, Berwyn, IL
  • Charlene Brophy, Director of Client and Clinical Services, FONEMED, Newfoundland, Canada
  • Susan Smith Dodson, MBA BSN RN CCRC, Triage System Development Coordinator/Trainer, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences ANGELS program (Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System), Little Rock, AR
  • Beverley Tipsord‐Klinkhammer, RN MBA, Senior VP of Patient Services, Onslow Memorial Hospital, Jacksonville, NC
  • Michelle Violette, RN BScN MSc, Director of Chronic Disease Management, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Donna Williams, RN, Nurse Manager, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences ANGELS program (Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System), Little Rock, AR

Paramedics

  • Peter Dillman, EdD EMT‐P, St Vincent Health, Indianapolis, IN

Dentists

  • James Discipio, DDS, LaGrange, IL

Behavioral Health Counselor

  • Jennifer Vitagliano, MC CPC, Helpline Coordinator, Behavioral Health Services, Banner Health System Call Center, Phoenix, AZ